ISSN 2223-0386 printed version
ISSN 2309-9003 online version




The Yesterday&Today is a scholarly, peer–reviewed and educationally focused History journal. It is indexed by the South African Department of Higher Education and Training. The journal is currently published in conjunction with The South African Society for History Teaching (SASHT) under the patronage of the School of Basic Sciences, Vaal Triangle Campus, North–West University. Open access to the journal is available on the SASHT, the SciELO and the Boloka websites. The website addresses to find previous and current issues of the Yesterday&Today journal are, and Two double&blind, peer–reviewed issues are annually published in July and December.

Scientific research articles are published in the following fields of research that covers 75% of the Journal: History teaching: Research reports dealing with the methodology (didactics) and practice of History teaching.
Educational history: History of any education–related theme.
History research: Any historical content or theme, especially represented in the History curricula of Southern Africa. It is recommended that all the contributions should reference to either the GET or FET or HET curriculum content. A theme of choice should also be linked to ways of HOW to educationally utilise the latter in teaching History in general, and/or in the classroom in particular. Hands–on articles that covers 25% articles in the following fields of research are published (covers 25% of the Journal): hands–on reports which are articles based on authors’ personal experiences/opinions with history within or outside of the classroom.


Editorial Policy

The Yesterday & Today (Y&T) Journal for History Teaching in South Africa and abroad

  1. Yesterday & Today is a scholarly, peer-reviewed journal and is accredited since the beginning of 2012.
  2. History Education, History in Education, and the History of Education and where research related submissions are welcomed.
  3. Authors may submit individual contributions or contributions created in teams.
  4. All manuscripts are subjected to a double-blinded review process.
  5. The language of the journal is English. However, abstracts may be in any of the
    11 official languages of South Africa.
  6. Contributions must be accompanied by an abstract of not more than 250 words.
  7. The titles of articles should preferably not exceed 15 words.
  8. The names of authors and their full institutional affiliations/addresses, city and country of the institution must accompany all contributions. Authors also have to enclose their E-mail addresses and orchid numbers.
  9. The Harvard or the Footnote methods of reference may be used. The authors’ choice of which reference method will be respected by the editorial management. References must be clear, lucid and comprehensible for a general academic audience of readers. Once an author has made a choice of reference method, the Yesterday & Today guidelines for either the Harvard reference method or the Footnote reference method must be scrupulously followed.
  10. Editorial material with images (illustrations, photographs, tables and graphs) is permissible. The images should, however, be of a high-density quality (high resolution, minimum of 200dpi). The source references should also be included. Large files should be posted in separate E-mail attachments, and appropriately numbered in sequence.
  11. Articles should be submitted online … Professor Johan Wassermann, the editor-in-chief, can be contacted electronically at: Notification of the receipt of the submission will be done within 72 hours.
  12. The text format must be in 12pt font, Times New Roman and in 1.5 spacing. The
    text should be in Microsoft Word format.
  13. The length of articles, all included, should preferably not exceed 8 000 words.
  14. Authors must sign the author declaration document when submitting their articles for consideration.
  15. For scientific research articles, page fees of R350.00 per page will be charged from the South African author’s university. It remains the responsibility of the author to ensure that these fees are paid.
  16. The journal utilizes the Portico digital preservation system in order to create permanent archives of the journal for purpose of preservation and restoration.
  17. Yesterday & Today is an Open Access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of Open Access.
  18. The journal has a registered deposit policy with SHERPA RoMEO. This policy indicates to institutions whether they are allowed to upload a duplicate copy of an article by an author affiliated with the home institution, into their institutional repository (Green Open Access). The following link to SHERPA RoMEO can be followed:
  19. Copyright and License terms remains with the authors/s of the article/s. All articles
    published Yesterday & Today can be re-used under the following CC licence: CC BY-SA Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License


Preparation and Style of Manuscripts

Template guidelines for writing an article

  1. Font type: Adobe Garamond Pro (throughout document)/Arial (if the first font type is unavailable).
  2. Font size in body text: 12 pt.
  3. Author’s details: ONLY provide the following: Title, Campus and University and email address
    Title: 10pt, regular font; Campus and University: 10pt, italics; and email address: 10pt, regular font. (Consult previous articles published in the Y&T journal as an example or as a practical guideline). Example: Dr. Pieter van Rensburg, Vaal Triangle Campus, North–West University,
  4. Abstract: The abstract should be placed on the first page (where the title heading and author’s particulars appear). The prescribed length is between a half and three quarters of a page.
    The abstract body: Regular font, 10pt.
  5. Keywords: The keywords should be placed on the first page below the abstract. The word ‘Keywords:’ 10pt, bold, underline.
    Each keyword must start with a capital letter and end with a semi–colon (;). Example: Meters; People; etc. (A minimum of six keywords is required).
  6. Heading of article: 14pt bold.
  7. Main headings in article: ‘Introduction’ – 12pt, bold.
  8. Sub–headings in article: ‘History ...’ – 12pt, bold, italics.
  9. Third level sub–headings: ‘History ...’ – 11pt, bold, underline.
  10. Fourth level sub–headings: ‘History ...’ – 11pt, bold, italics, underline.
  11. Footnotes: 8pt, regular font; BUT note that the footnote numbers in the article text should be 12pt.
    The initials in a person’s name (in footnote text) should be without any full stops. Example: LC du Plessis and NOT L.C. du Plessis.
  12. Body text: Names without punctuation in the text. Example: “HL le Roux said” and NOT “H.L. le Roux said”.
  13. Page numbering: Page numbering in the footnote text should be indicated as follows:
    Example: p. space23 – p. 23. / pp. 23–29.
  14. Any lists in the body text should be 11pt, and in bullet format.
  15. Quotes from sources in the body text must be used sparingly. If used, it must be indented and in italics (10pt). Quotes less than one line in a paragraph can be incorporated as part of a paragraph, but within inverted commas; and NOT in italics. Example: An owner close to the town stated that: “the pollution history of the river is a muddy business”.
  16. Indents (in body text) must be in double inverted commas: “...and she” and NOT ‘...and she’.
  17. Images: illustrations, pictures, photographs and figures: Submit all pictures for an article in jpeg, tiff or pdf format in a separate folder, and indicate where the pictures should be placed in the manuscript’s body text.
    Example: Image 1: ‘Image title’ (regular font, 10pt) in the body text.
    Sources of all images should also be included.
    Example: Source: ‘The source’ (regular font, 9 pt.). Remember to save and name pictures in the separate folder accordingly.
    Important note: All the images should be of good quality (a minimum resolution of 200dpi is required; if the image is not scanned).
  18. Punctuation marks should be placed in front of the footnote numbers in the text.
    Example: the end.1 NOT ...the end1.
  19. Single spacing between the sentences in the footnote.
  20. Dates: All dates in footnotes should be written out in full. Example: 23 December 2010; NOT 23/12/2010. [For additional guidelines see the Yesterday&Today Reference guidelines.]
  21. Language setting in Microsoft Word as English (South Africa); do this before starting with the word processing of the article. Go to ‘Review’, ‘Set Language’ and select ‘English (South Africa)’.

The Footnote or Harvard reference methods – some guidelines
Both the Footnote reference method and the Harvard reference method are accepted for articles in Yesterday&Today.

The footnote reference method Footnote references should be placed at the bottom of each page. Footnotes should be numbered sequentially throughout the article and starting with 1. Archival sources/published works/authors referred to in the text should be cited in full in the first footnote of each new reference. Thereafter, it can be reduced to a shorter footnote reference. Do not refer to the exact same source and page numbers in footnotes that follow each other.
The use of the Latin word “Ibid” is not allowed. Rather refer to the actual reference again (its shortened version) on the rest of a page(s) in the footnote section.
The first letter of most words in the titles of books, articles, chapters, theses, dissertations and papers/manuscripts should be capitalised. Only the first letter of the surname of authors should be capitalized, not the complete surname. No names of authors, in full, is allowed. The following practical examples serve as guideline:

Examples of an article in a journal R Siebörger, Incorporating human rights into the teaching of History: Teaching materials, Yesterday&Today, 2, October 2008, pp. 1–14.
S Marks, “Khoisan resistance to the Dutch in the seventeenth and eighteen centuries”, Journal of African History, 3(1), 1972, p. 76.
Example of a shortened version of an article in a journal
From: P Erasmus, “The ‘lost’ South African tribe rebirth of the Koranna in the Free State”, New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77.
To: P Erasmus, “The ‘lost’ South African tribe…”, New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77.

[Please note: only the title of the article is shortened]
Examples of a reference from a book

WF Lye & C Murray, Transformations on the Highveld: The Tswana and the Southern Sotho (Cape Town, David Phillip, 1980), pp. 7, 10.
JJ Buys, Die oorsprong en migrasiebewegings van die Koranna en hulle rol in die Transgariep tot 1870 (Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein, 1989), pp. 33–34.

[Please note the reference variety to page numbers used]
Example of a shortened version of a reference from a book

JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement: Calvinism, the Congregation– al Ministry , and reform in New England between the Great Awakenings (Washington, Christian University Press, 1981), p. 23.
JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement…, p. 23.

Example of a reference from a chapter in a book
S Brown, “Diplomacy by other means: SWAPO’s liberation war”, C Leys, JS Saul, Namibia’s liberation struggle: The two–edged sword (London, Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 19–39.

Shortened version:
S Brown, “Diplomacy by other means…”, C Leys, JS Saul, Namibia’s liberation strug– gle…, pp. 19–39.

Example of a reference from an unpublished dissertation/thesis
MJ Dhlamini, “The relationship between the African National Congress and the Pan Afri– canist Congress, 1959–1990” (Ph.D, NWU, 2006), pp. 4, 8, 11.

Examples of a reference from a newspaper
P Coetzee, “Voëlvlugblik ATKV 75 op ons blink geskiedenis”, Die Transvaler, 6 Januarie 2006, p. 8.
or Zululand Times, 19 July 1923.

Archival references:

  • Interview(s)
    Provide at least key details such as: Name of interviewee and profession; the interviewer and profession and date of interview
  • Example of interview reference
    K Rasool (Personal Collection), interview, K Kotzé (CEO, Goldfields, Johannesburg Head Office)/E Schutte (Researcher, NWU, School of Basic Science), 12 March 2006.
  • Example of shortened interview reference (after it has been used once in article)
    K Rasool (Personal Collection), interview, K. Kotzé/E Schutte , 12 March 2006.
  • Example of an Electronic Mail – document or letter
    E–mail: W Pepler (Bigenafrica, Pretoria/E van Eeden (Researcher), 22 October 2006.
  • National archives (or any other archive)
    National archiving (NA), Pretoria, Department of Education (DE), Vol.10, Reference 8/1/3/452: Letter, K Lewis (Director General) / P Dlamini (Teacher, Springs College), 12 June 1960.
    [Please note: After the first reference to the National Archives or Source Group for exam– ple, it can be abbreviated to e.g. NA or DE]
  • A source accessed on the Internet
    A Dissel, “Tracking transformation in South African prisons”, Track Two, 11(2), April 2002 (available at–2transformation.html, as accessed on 14 Jan. 2003), pp. 1–3.

A source from conference proceedings First reference to the source: D Dollar, “Asian century or multi–polar century?” (Paper, Global Development Network Annual Conference, Beijing, January 2007), p. 7.
B Sautmann, “The forest for the trees: Trade investment and the China–in–Afrika discourse” (Paper, Public Seminar: China in Africa: Race, relations and reflections, Centre for Sociological Research, University of Johannesburg, 28 July 2007), p. 7.
Shortened version:
D Dollar, “Asian century…” (Paper, GDN Conference, 2007), p. 7.
B Sautmann, “The forest for the trees: ...” (Paper, Public Seminar: China in Africa: ..., University of Johannesburg [or UJ]), p. 7.


The appropriate positioning of the image should be indicated in the text. Original copies should be clearly identified on the back. High quality scanned versions are always welcome.

Authors, PLEASE obtain copyright and reproduction rights on photographs and other illustrations.
Copyright on all material in Yesterday&Today rests within the Editorial Advisory Committee of Yesterday&Today.

The Harvard reference method
References in the text

References are cited in the text by the author’(s) surname(s) and the year of publication in brackets, separated by a comma: e.g. (Weedon, 1977:13).
If several articles by the same author and from the same year are cited, the letters a, b, c, etc. should be added after the year of publication: e.g. (Fardon, 2007a:23).
Page references in the text should follow a colon after the date: e.g. (Bazalgette, 1992:209–214).
In works by three or more authors the surnames of all authors should be given in the first reference to such a work. In subsequent references to this work, only the name of the first author is given, followed by the abbreviation et al.: e.g. (Ottaro et al., 2005:34).
If reference is made to an anonymous item in a newspaper, the name of the news– paper is given in brackets: e.g. (The Citizen, 2010).
For personal communications (oral or written) identify the person and indicate in brackets that it is a personal communication: e.g. (B Brown, pers. comm.).
Ensure that dates, spelling and titles used in the text are accurate and consistent with those listed in the references.
List all references chronologically and then alphabetically: e.g. (Scott 2003; Muller 2006; Meyer 2007).

List of references
Only sources cited in the text are listed, in alphabetical order, under References.
Bibliographic information should be in the language of the source document, not in the language of the article.
References should be presented as indicated in the following examples. See the required punctuation.

  • Journal articles
    Surname(s) and initials of author(s), year of publication, title of article, unabbreviated title of journal, volume, issue number in brackets and page numbers: e.g. Shepherd, R 1992. Elementary media education. The perfect curriculum. English Quarterly, 25(2):35–38.

  • Books
    Surname(s) and initials of author(s) or editor(s), year of publication, title of book, volume, edition, place of publication and publisher: e.g. Mouton, J 2001. Understanding social research. Pretoria: JL van Schaik.

  • Chapters in books
    Surname(s) and initials of author(s), year of publication, title of chapter, editor(s), title of book, place of publication and publisher: e.g. Masterman, L 1992. The case of television studies. In: M Alvarado & O Boyda–Barrett (eds). Media education: an introduction. London: British Film Institute.

  • Unpublished theses or dissertations
    Fardon, JVV 2007. Gender in history teaching resources in South African public school. Unpublished DEd thesis. Pretoria: Unisa.

  • Anonymous newspaper references
    Daily Mail 2006. World Teachers’ Day, 24 April.

  • Electronic references
    Published under author’s name: Marshall, J 2003. Why Johnny can’t teach. Reason, December. Available at http:// Accessed on 10 August 2010.

    Website references: No author:
    These references are not archival, and subject to change in any way and at any time If it is essential to present them, they should be included in a numbered endnote and not in the reference list.

  • Personal communications
    Normally personal communications should always be recorded and retrievable. It should be cited as follows:
    Personal interview, K Kombuis (Journalist–singer)/S van der Merwe (Researcher), 2 October 2010.


Peer Review Process

When a manuscript is submitted by e–mail to Yesterday&Today, the editor first screens it to establish whether it suits the focus and scope of the journal, and to consider the theoretical foundation of the research, the depth of analysis and the accuracy in reporting the findings. The editor will also take into account the intended target audience and the relevance and importance of the article.

After the manuscript has passed the initial screening process, a double–blind peer–reviewing process will follow. This means that the identities of the author (and its affiliation) as well as those of the reviewers are concealed throughout the reviewing process. Generally, a minimum of two peer reviewers are chosen from the Editorial Board or from people who are experts in their field, including reviewers from abroad. The potential reviewers will first be contacted by e–mail to ask whether they will be willing to review the manuscript before assigning it to them.

The selected reviewers will be requested to finish their reviews within 4–5 weeks and to complete a peer–reviewing form allowing for certain reviewing criteria in assessing and rating the manuscript. This form also requests a narrative containing suggestions to authors in an effort to improve the quality of their manuscripts. The Editorial Board then considers the feedback provided by the reviewers and arrives at a decision. One of the following four decisions will be taken, after which the author will be informed of the outcome:

  1. Accepted for publication.
  2. Will be accepted for publication provided that the suggested amendments are made.
  3. Must be amended and resubmitted for evaluation.
  4. Rejected.

The entire editorial work–flow is performed through e–mail communication. In this regard the editor is supported by his personal assistant, who immediately acknowledges receipt of an article once it has been submitted and keeps the authors informed of the reviewing process as it develops.


Manuscripts Submission

Articles should be submitted to the Editor–in–Chief electronically at: and also to his administrative assistant, Ronélle van Staden at:
Notification of the receipt of the documents will be done within 48 hours.


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The South African Society for History Teaching (SASHT)
Yesterday&Today, School of Human and Social Sciences for Education, North–West University,
Potchefstroom, North West Province, ZA, 2530,
Tel: +27 18 2994728, Mobile: +27 83 650 9566