SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.63Cyclohexenones through addition of ethyl acetoacetate to 3-aryl-1-(thiophen-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one derivativesCharacterization and oxidative addition reactions of different rhodium and iridium triazolato complexes author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


South African Journal of Chemistry

On-line version ISSN 1996-840X
Print version ISSN 0379-4350

S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) vol.63  Durban  2010




Effects of copper exchange levels on complexation of ammonia in Cu (II)-exchanged X zeolite



Chrispin O. KowenjeI, *; David C. DoetschmanII; Jürgen SchulteII; Charles W. KanyiII; Jared DeCosteII; Szu-Wei YangII; Barry R. JonesII

IDepartment of Chemistry, Maseno University, Box 333 - 40105, Maseno, Kenya
IIDepartment of Chemistry, Binghamton University, Vestal Parkways East, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000, USA




Copper (Il)-exchanged faujasite-X zeolites at various loadings of copper per unit cell of zeolites were prepared and then exposed to ammonia. The copper ammine complexes of the various copper levels per unit cell were characterized and analyzed by a combination of diffuse reflectance, X-ray powder diffraction, FT-infrared spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic methods. At low copper exchange levels (<5 copper atoms per unit cell), the major complex is [Cu(Ozeo)2(NH3)2]2+ and it is strongly bound to the zeolite framework walls at single four ring sites (site III). Above five copper atoms per unit cell, the major complex becomes [Cu(NH3)4]2+ and it is least interacting with the zeolite framework walls. The [Cu(NH3)4]2+ complex which was formed at higher copper levels per unit cell was most favoured by the presence of maximal amount of ammonia.

Keywords: Cation exchange, catalysis, copper, complexation, copper ammines



Full text available only in PDF format.



The authors are grateful for the financial support of the SAIC Corporation, Institute for Hazardous Materials Management. We are equally thankful to Dr Daniel Brennan of State University of New York at Broome Community College for help with the X-ray measurements.



1 F.-S. Xiao,W. Zhang, M. Jia, Y. Yu, C. Fang, G. Tu, S. Zheng, S. Qiu and R. Xu, Catal. Today, 1999, 50, 117–123.         [ Links ]

2 S. Miao, Y. Wang, D. Ma, Q. Zhu, S. Zhou, L. Su, D. Tan and X. Bao, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2004, 108, 17866–17871.         [ Links ]

3 A.J. Hernandez-Maldonado and R.T. Yang, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 992–993.         [ Links ]

4 Y.-Y. Huang and E.F. Vansant, J. Phys. Chem., 1973, 77, 663–667.         [ Links ]

5 J. Hunger, J. Boehm, H. Boehlig and B. Hunger, Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal., 2008, 174A, 745–750.         [ Links ]

6 E. Jaramillo, C.P. Grey and S.M. Auerbach, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2001, 105, 12319–12329.         [ Links ]

7 S.-B. Liu, T.-S. Lin, T.-C. Yang, T.-H. Chen, E.-C. Hong and R. Ryoo, J. Phys. Chem., 1995, 99, 8277–8282.         [ Links ]

8 J. Dwyer, R.V. Parish and N. P. Evmerides, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 1983, 75, 229–234.         [ Links ]

9 N.J. Turro, X. Lei, W. Li, Z. Liu and M.F. Ottaviani, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2000, 122, 12571–12581.         [ Links ]

10 N. Ohata, Y. Ito, D. Gomibuchi, H. Kitamura, Y. Furahashi, T. Ozawa and H. Masuda, Adv. Mat. Res., 2006, 281, 11–12,         [ Links ]

11 C.O. Kowenje, B.R. Jones, D.C. Doetschman, S.-W. Yang and C.W. Kanyi, Chem. Phys., 2006, 333, 401–409.         [ Links ]

12 M. Narayana, S. Contarini and L. Kevan, J. Catal., 1985, 94, 370–375.         [ Links ]

13 B.O. Hincapie, L.J. Garces, S. Gomez, R. Ghosh and S.L. Suib, Catal. Today, 2005, 110, 323–329.         [ Links ]

14 I.E. Maxwell, J.J. DeBoer and R.S. Downing, J. Catal., 1980, 61, 493–502.         [ Links ]

15 J.-S. Yu, J. Kim and L. Kevan, Micro. Mesoporous Mater., 2000, 40, 135–147.         [ Links ]

16 J. Piesach and W.E. Blumberg, E. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1974, 165, 691–708.         [ Links ]

17 P. Carl and S. Larsen, J. Catal., 1999, 182, 208–218.         [ Links ]

18 S. Kieger, G. Delahay, B. Coq and B. Neveu, J. Catal., 1999, 183, 267–280.         [ Links ]

19 U.D. Joshi, P.N. Joshi, S.S. Tamhankar, V.V. Joshi and V.P. Shiralkar, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2001, 105, 10637–10647.         [ Links ]

20 T.M. Salama, A.H.Ahmedand Z.M. El-Bahy, Micro. Mesoporous Mater., 2006, 89, 251–259.         [ Links ]

21 J.A. Van Bokhoven, A.L. Roest, D.C. Koningsberger, J.T. Miller, G.H. Nachtegaal and A.P.M. Kentgens, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2000, 104, 6743–6754.         [ Links ]



Received 14 January 2009
Revised 17 October 2009
Accepted 23 November 2009



* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License