SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.36 número2The relationship between the state and the church during the early history of PretoriaThe beautiful birdsong of Tshwane: Preliminary reflections on the beginnings of the Uniting Reformed Church of Southern Africa (URCSA) congregation Melodi ya Tshwane índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google


Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae

versión On-line ISSN 2412-4265
versión impresa ISSN 1017-0499

Studia Hist. Ecc. vol.36 no.2 Pretoria oct. 2010


The impact of apartheid on the educational endeavours of two missionary agencies



Frederick Hale

Department of English, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa




Numerous studies have shown how apartheid and the struggle against it influenced a range of Christian denominations and missionary agencies in South Africa, but these investigations have tended to ignore smaller denominations and missions. This article focuses on two of these denominations and missions: the Norwegian Mission Covenant and the Scandinavian Alliance Mission of North America (after 1949 called The Evangelical Alliance Mission). Both were historically rooted in the premillennial revivalism of the Swedish-American evangelist Fredrik Franson. Their missionary workers reacted in various ways to the pressures that increased social engineering along racial lines put on their work among black South Africans. The Bantu Education Act of 1953 removed one of the pillars of their outreach programme - education. Some of their missionaries vigorously criticised apartheid, while others assumed a more passive attitude. This article also discusses the role of their eschatology and the rural/urban emphasis in their ministries in influencing their responses to apartheid.



“Full text available only in PDF format”



Works consulted

Abraham, Garth 1989. The Catholic Church and apartheid. Johannesburg: Ravan.         [ Links ]

Bosch, David 1991. Transforming mission: paradigm shifts in theology of mission. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis.         [ Links ]

James R Cochrane 1987. Servants of power: the role of English-speaking Churches in South Africa. Johannesburg: Ravan.         [ Links ]

De Gruchy, John W 1979. Church struggle in South Africa. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.         [ Links ]

Hale, Frederick 1996. The development of social ethical consciousness in the Swedish Lutheran Mission on the Witwatersrand. Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae XXII(2), 48-67.         [ Links ]

Hale, Frederick 1998. Launching Scandinavian urban evangelisation in Southern Africa: The Free East Africa Mission in Durban, 1889-1899. Svensk Missionstidskrift LXXXVI(2), 227-250.         [ Links ]

Hale, Frederick 2000. The development of Norwegian Lutheran Missionary endeavours in Durban, 1890-1914. Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae XXVI(1), 56-79.         [ Links ]

Hale, Frederick 2001. The Church of Sweden Mission and apartheid, 1948-1960. Missionalia XXIX(1), 21-42.         [ Links ]

Hale, Frederick 2005. Swedish Lutheran Missionaries on the Witwatersrand, 1890-1960. Doctor of Philosophy thesis. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Hale, Frederick 2008. Adapting to apartheid: the Church of Sweden Mission on the Witwatersrand in the 1950s. Journal of Church and State L(3), Summer, 451-474.         [ Links ]

Horrell, Muriel 1964. A decade of Bantu education. Johannesburg: South African Institute of Race Relations.         [ Links ]

Scutt, JF 1950. The story of the E.T.T.C. Pietermaritzburg: Shooter & Shuter.         [ Links ]

Torjesen, Edvard Paul 1983. Fredrik Franson: a model for worldwide evangelism. Pasadena: William Carey Library.         [ Links ]

Torjesen, Edvard Paul. A study of Fredrik Franson: the development of his ecclesiology, missiology, and worldwide evangelism. PhD. Thesis. International College.         [ Links ]

Villa-Vicencio, Charles 1988. Trapped in apartheid: a socio-theological history of the English-speaking churches. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, and Cape Town: David Philip.         [ Links ]

Worsnip, Michael E 1991. Between the two fires: the Anglican Church and apartheid, 1948-1957. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.         [ Links ]

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons