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Journal of Contemporary Management

On-line version ISSN 1815-7440

JCMAN vol.20 n.2 Meyerton  2023 



Perceptions of the effects of Training and Development practices on employee performance: A case of Inyatsi Construction Company



Matsidiso Nehemia NaongI, *; Wendy Samkelisiwe ThomoII; Lineo Winifred DzansiIII

IDepartment of Business Management, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa. Email:; ORCID:
IIDepartment of Business Management, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa. Email:;
IIIDepartment of Business Management, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa. Email:; ORCID:




BACKGROUND: More often than not, organisations are stunned when there is a disjuncture between performance targets and outcomes. Companies seldom appraise the relationship and impact of their training practices on workforce performance. Consequently, they miss out on the crucial sustainable competitive advantage to be derived from these deliberate intervention procedures
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The main aim of this paper was to investigate the impact of training and development (T&D) practices on employee performance at Inyatsi Construction
DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A positivist method, i.e., a quantitative research approach, was adopted, and a survey to purposively collect data from a (n=129) stratified sampled population was conducted on different branches of Inyatsi Construction in three different countries, with T&D practices being the independent variable and employee performance the dependant variable. Descriptive statistic tools, SPSS, were applied to the questionnaire's responses to gauge the reliability of all the constructs for Cronbach's Alpha value greater than 0.700, indicating the reliability of the instrument
FINDINGS/RESULTS: The main linear regression analysis findings revealed a significant correlation between (i) T&D practices and employee performance, (ii) organizational intentions and T&D practices (iii) specific employee development needs and T&D and finally (iv) between employee key performance areas and T&D
RECOMMENDATIONS/VALUE: The study shared empirical evidence of a significantly positive relationship between training practices and employee performance. Aligning human capital development needs with training practices is a potent ingredient for employee commitment, engagement and sustainable competitive advantage
MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: It is hoped that these findings will assist not only management at Inyatsi Construction but organisations, in general, to view and engender investment in human capital as part of their HR strategic goals, specifically efficient talent management towards a sustainable competitive advantage
ORIGINAL VALUE/CONTRIBUTIONS: The crafting of a customised T&D practice, together with empirical evidence of its effect on employee performance, for similar organisations operating in developing economies

Keywords: Eswatini; employee performance; Inyatsi Construction; T&D practices; turnover.




Firms operating in the knowledge-based economy are becoming more and more dependent upon the knowledge and skills of their workers (Mensah & Enu-Kwesi, 2018). True competitive advantage is not gained through products or physical assets but through the talent of employees (Jibril & Yesiltas, 2022). Human Resources (HR) is evolving from being solely regarded as "people specialists" to becoming competent in an array of different areas, including involvement in the strategic decision-making process (Saks, 2022). Unfortunately, very few organisations within developing countries have a desire to invest in this important resource as part of their strategic goals. Fahim (2019) maintains that HR management is a strategic and coherent approach to the management of a lorganisation's most valued assets: the people working there, who individually and collectively contribute to the achievemen ofjits objectives. In orderl to sustain strategic agility, HR professionals must first understand the business strategy and then align HR practices with (Kuipers & Giurge, 2017).

The construction industry, as a unit of analysis in this study, is known for its low take-up of investment in people initiatives (Windapo & Cattell, 2013; World Economic Forum, 2016) and poor commitment to T&D initiatives. Training has long been identified and recognised as one of the key processes within the construction industry in order to enable organisations to have managers with the desired qualities (Whysall et al., 2019). Despite the benefits of T&D practices, construction companies show little commitment and/or attention to employee development. The construction industry requires individuals with basic knowledge and skills, while highly skilled individuals are extremely important for the construction processes. To achieve this condition, Inyatsi Construction ought to ensure that construction managers understand the need for employee development and its positive impact on employee performance. High levels of managerial commitment to T&D practices are frequently reported as helping to encourage staff retention (Whysall et al., 2019). From a business perspective, human resources development (HRD) can be seen as a powerful tool for creating a sustainable competitive advantage (Younas et al., 2018). Training holds the key to unlocking potential development and growth in opportunities to achieve a competitive edge (Olanipekun, 2022). Caring HRM practices, such as T&D, will result in an organisational climate of care and concern for employees that, in turn, will encourage employees to care for the organisation (Saks, 2022), implying that offering T&D opportunities to employees shows that the organisation cares about its employees. There is a significant difference between organisations that train their employees and those that do not (Laing, 2021). Development is a managerial function that helps to ensure employees not only have the requisite skills but also derive satisfaction that leads to commitment and sustained improved performance. It is for this reason that this study endeavoured to explore the relationship between T&D and employee performance in a developing country.

The study will assist in the assessment of the current Inyatsi Construction practices and their impact on employee performance. The study will also assist in determining whether T&D practices are directed at the core skills that departments need to deliver in terms of their strategic objectives, whether appropriate monitoring mechanisms are in place to ensure that T&D plans are implemented accordingly, and whether the impact of such T&D is assessed.



2.1 Conceptualising Training and Development (T&D)

Training is an important tool for an organisation to revamp the performance of all its personnel for organisational growth and success. There is consensus from a plethora of documented research (Goswami & Saha, 2021 ; Bens, 2022; Taye, 2022) that training implies a deliberately organised programme of activities through which people learn and acquire specialised knowledge and skills that are positively related to organisational performance (Igudia, 2022). The particular knowledge and skills that are learned through such training sessions are then applied and used by the trainees to advance their performance in their roles within the workplace. Masadeh (2012) adds that training focuses on current work and is a planned and systematic process. Igudia (2022) contends that the primary purpose of training is to develop the knowledge, skills and abilities of the individual trainee in order to satisfy the current and future human capital and competency needs of the organisation that is sponsoring the training. Bahador et al. (2018) contend that employee development is a practice of shaping and transforming employees' knowledge, skills, creative abilities, attitudes, values and commitment based on current and future organisational requirements and for greater productivity within the workplace. Khalid et al. (2012) opine that in order to improve employees' ability to perform at the required level, they should be trained and their skills constantly upgraded. Appropriately trained employees waste less time, money and resources.

Ismael et al. (2021) assert that training is needed because there are few people who come to work with complete knowledge of their job and the experience necessary to execute their tasks, especially in the construction industry; even the most highly qualified employees who have the technical construction knowledge lack administration, financial, leadership, human resources and other business-related skills. Thus, it is important to ensure that they are constantly trained. Jose et al. (2021) add that organisations cannot survive without investing in employees' T&D. Improvement in skills increases the versatility of employees, which leads to the required performance level in the current job. Other benefits of investing in human capital include commitment, job satisfaction, improved performance (Hamadamin & Atan, 2019; Naong, 2014) and reduced staff turnover.

The competitive market in the construction industry has increased the need for managers and engineers (Li et al., 2019). The need to know and understand safety methods and procedures used on building sites, as well as knowledge of staff management, quality control systems and how to organise administrative systems, are all vital skills for site management (Loosemore & Malouf, 2019; Newaz et al., 2021). Indeed, Alonazi (2021) confirms that the most successful organisations that incorporate learning and improvement as integral aspects of their organisational culture are strategically led, with all employees being able to articulate the company's vision with understanding and, thus, are competitively focused. A successful organisation is driven by the need to compete at the highest level and is well aware of what its competitors are up to. According to Zacharias et al. (2021), from an employee's perspective, corporate culture provides guidelines for employees about everything that is important to achieve. Indiyati et al. (2021) argue that organisational culture is also called "corporate culture" because it cannot be separated from the performance of HR. The stronger the corporate culture, the stronger the employees' drive for achievement.

2.2 Employee performance

Kuruppu et al. (2021) define performance as "the achievement of specific tasks measured against predetermined or identified standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed".

Furthermore, "performance management is also the result of activities of an organisation or an investment over a given period of time" (Nudurupati et al., 2021) or "the accomplishment of a given task, measured against present standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed" (Kuruppu et al., 2021). Abdulkaliq and Mohammadali (2019) state that employee performance is one of the factors that most affect the performance of an organisation.

2.3 Relationship between T&D and employee performance

The T&D practices increase the efficiency of an organisation and the morale of employees, improve human relations, enhance organisational flexibility and reduce the need for supervision (Klepic, 2021). In their study, Kumudha and Raji (2018) conclude that there is a positive correlation between T&D and employee performance. Niati et al. (2021) report an increase in the performance of those employees who received training compared to those who did not. Jose et al. (2021) maintain that any successful organisation understands the importance of HR development as a critical factor that directly affects and contributes to overall organisational performance. Fadhil et al. (2021) further add that to increase an employee's performance, it is crucial to inspire the employee by means of closing the skills gap. The major role of T&D is to improve the quality of the task process, which brings improvement in the employees' performance. Without a doubt, the pervasive effect of T&D is widely documented to increase productivity, improve the quality of work, raise morale, and reduce wastage, accidents, lateness, absenteeism, turnover and other overhead costs (Ashmond et al., 2022). Pham (2020) claims that organisational performance is assessed through financial measures, such as sales, profit and market share and non-financial measures, such as efficiency, quality of service, organisational productivity, employee satisfaction and commitment - all of these factors can be increased through T&D. Jibril and Yesiltas (2022) point out that the improved knowledge, skills and capabilities of a talented workforce have proven to be a major source of competitive advantage in the global market.



Inyatsi Construction is a medium-sized company with approximately 2 000 employees. It was first registered in 1982 as Inyatsi Construction Group Holdings (Pty) Ltd (ICGH) and formed in 2007 as the holding company of Inyatsi Construction and its regional subsidiaries. The company has operations in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia, as well as being registered in Botswana and Namibia. Inyatsi and all its subsidiaries are ISO 9001:2008 certified and have completed the NOSA 5-Star audit, as well as being awarded four Platinum Stars on the grading system. In order for Inyatsi Construction to maintain these standards, it requires trained people to monitor these systems daily. The company's growth accelerated rapidly after re-strategising and diversifying four years ago. It currently focuses primarily on roads, earthworks, town infrastructure and high-quality, fast-track houses at the new mines. The company is named after the Swazi word for buffalo in order to capture the indigenous and hardworking heart of its vision.

Inyatsi Construction has established a firm foothold in the construction industry in the Sub-Saharan African region; not only is the company a business leader in Swaziland, but it is also expanding outside this Kingdom's borders at a rapid rate. Over the past half-decade, Inyatsi Construction has realised the need to engage its labour force in T&D practices aimed at improving the individual employee's skills, knowledge and abilities at every level of the organisation's structure. This goal has been prompted particularly by the actions of companies that are in close competition with Inyatsi Construction and are operating in neighbouring countries, such as Mozambique and South Africa. These companies have made inroads into Inyatsi Construction's growth and development by poaching a significant number of the organisation's young, qualified civil engineers. At Inyatsi Construction, most of the engineers are employees who come straight from university with theoretical knowledge only. They are promoted to senior positions based on their years of service, together with their knowledge and practical skills garnered on construction sites.



This study stems from a realisation of the need for optimally administering the effect of T&D practices on employee performance. The lack of commitment and retention of skilled and competent employees have created an obstruction and hindrance to normal daily operations, efficiency in the completion of tasks, a lack of customer satisfaction, and increased substitution and hiring and training costs. Gatai and Ndegwa (2022) suggest that the positive influence of T&D programmes can contribute to improved workforce performance and organisational productivity.

The most serious problem that Inyatsi Construction faces is a high employee turnover rate. On exit interview records, it appears that employees have expressed concern about their lack of career development and perceive no reason for continuing to work for Inyatsi Construction. Some employees indicated that skills gained from training programmes are not related to their day-to-day job and, thus, are not utilised. Consequently, they have become demotivated and antagonistic towards any future T&D initiatives. Inyatsi Construction Group Holding is a construction company that is dependent upon the quality, skills and performance of its employees; thus, the reason why an annual budget of R1 000 000.00 is set aside to develop employees at all Inyatsi branches throughout Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia. Given this background, it is imperative to empirically establish the causal link between pertinent variables underpinning this study, hence the following hypothesis.

Based on the aforementioned, the following hypothesis was developed:

H0 - There is no significant positive relationship between T&D practices and employee performance at Inyatsi Construction.

H1 - There is a significant positive relationship between T&D practices and employee performance at Inyatsi Construction.



This research study is founded on the resource-based view (RBV). The resource-based theory suggests that resources that are valuable, rare, difficult to imitate and non-substitutable are the best for positioning a firm for long-term success (Adekunle & Israel, 2022). These strategic resources can provide the foundation for developing stable capabilities that can lead to superior performance over time. In a similar vein, Seles et al. (2022) propose a resource-based view to provide the theoretical background for the employer brand. Based on the RBV of strategic management, Baikuni et al. (2022) note that each firm possesses rare, valuable, non-substitutable and difficult to imitate resources, including human capital, that could be a key factor of competitive advantage for the firm. Based upon the RBV perspective, employer branding is predicated on the assumption that human capital brings value to the firm and that its skilful management can lead to a sustained competitive advantage (Dabirian et al., 2019).

5.1 Conceptual framework

The purpose of the conceptual framework is to set the stage for the presentation of the research questions and drive the investigation being reported (Johnson et al., 2020). Table 1 depicts the conceptual framework for the proposed study. This framework adopts the model recommended by Hameed and Waheed (2011) and is based on the literature review of previous research studies related to employee development and performance. In this study, employee performance is the dependent variable and employee development is the independent variable operative from the identified variables.

The summative essence of the above model is that employee T&D practices and their effect on employee performance means that employees' productivity and output are a result of employee development.

Table 1 advocates that to attain organisational success through increased employee performance, it is imperative that Inyatsi Group Holdings' HR division should always ensure that organisational T&D practices are aligned with employees' key performance areas, as well as their developmental needs. A common understanding of these underlying employeetraining imperatives has the potential to translate into improved performance. It is a well-known fact that training enhances skills' development and, ultimately, employees' performance and productivity within organisations. Mekuri-Ndimele (2022) describes the sub-variable that operationalises employee T&D.



A mixed method integrating elements of both positivist (i.e., survey) and interpretivist (i.e., desktop search and informal discussions) approaches were adopted in this study. Mixed methods are useful in understanding contradictions between quantitative results and qualitative findings, as well as for reflecting participants' points of view. They give voice to study participants and ensure that study findings are grounded in the participants' experiences (Burns et al., 2022). The study utilised the purposive sampling technique, which is a non-probability sampling technique whereby subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher (Crossman, 2016; Andrade, 2020).

6.1 Population and sampling size

The target population consists of an estimated 700+ employees of Inyatsi Construction drawn from the Kingdom of Eswatini, South Africa and Zambia. The researcher used the RaoSift sample size calculator, which gives a minimum recommended sample size of 220, from which 129 fully completed responses were obtained.

6.2 Date collection

A survey, i.e., a structured questionnaire, was used to collect data from all the permanent employees sourced from Inyatsi Construction's HR department. According to Ruslin et al. (2022), the structured interview gives both the researcher and the participants a degree of flexibility. Data was collected from the branches of Inyatsi Construction as follows: Kingdom of Eswatini (n=61), South Africa (n=39) and Zambia (n=29).

6.3 Data analysis

The data obtained from the questionnaires were analysed using a simple, descriptive statistical method (Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0). Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations) and inferential statistics (Cronbach Alpha for questionnaire items reliability) were used to analyse the data collected. Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationships between the variables, namely between T&D practices and employee performance.

6.4 Ethical considerations

Ethical issues in research fall into one of four categories, namely: protection from harm, informed consent, right to privacy, and honesty with professional colleagues (Creswell & Creswell, 2018; Moriña, 2021). Equally, the collected data are presented in an aggregated form to adhere to the confidentiality and the anonymity of respondents.



7.1 Demographic data

General demographic information presented in Table 2 shows that the study respondents comprised females (55.2%) and males (44.8%) and indicates a fairly balanced representation of both genders. The majority of the research participants were Blacks (27.93%), while the remaining 6.9 percent were Whites. The age distribution of the research participants indicated that there were more young respondents, with the 21 to 30 year (23.3%) and the 31 to 40 year (30.2%) age groups being in the majority. Most of the respondents indicated that they spoke Afrikaans as a home language (57.7%), with Siswati being second (26.9%). English and Xhosa speakers were in the minority. There was a fair balance between married (51.7%) and single respondents (44.8%), while 3.5 percent represented those either separated or divorced. In terms of educational qualifications, the majority (76.7%) of the respondents had at least a college diploma.

From the desktop search, it can be inferred that top management participants comprised civil engineers and accountants, middle management consisted of site supervisors, mechanics, accounts officers, site administrators, an HR officer and section leaders, and low management included apprentices, assistant mechanics, bricklayers, carpenters, plumbers, trainees and welders. At Inyatsi Construction, most of the top managers have either a degree/diploma in civil engineering or are qualified by experience. In this research study, the middle managers are those with certificates or diplomas in the different fields offered by Inyatsi Construction. Employees under low management have level or grade test certificates, and most of them are semi-qualified.


Table 3


The study's hypothesis was tested using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r2). Analyses were run separately for T&D practices and employee performance. As indicated in Table 4 below, the correlation coefficient between T&D practices and employee performance is .57 (p< 0.01), which reflects and confirms the support of the study's underlying hypothesis.

7.2 Reliability analysis

The results in Table 5 show reliability statistics for the constructs discussed in this study. The constructs were considered a reliable measurement of the intended variables if there is internal consistency among the items under them, i.e., if the Cronbach's Alpha statistic is at least equal to 0.700. Constructs with Cronbach's Alpha statistics less than 0.700 will need improvement in future studies.

The results in Table 5 show that all the constructs have Cronbach's Alpha statistics greater than 0.700, except for the constructs culture of self-directed performance and communication and feedback, which had a Cronbach's Alpha statistic of 0.637. The construct for the measure of attitude and behaviour had a Cronbach's Alpha statistic equal to 0.718 after leaving out item AB5 (a fact that indicates that change management is a core component of T&D at Inyatsi Construction). The above constructs, thus, were deemed reliable in measuring the target variables of this study.

7.3 Analysis of the construct Culture of self-directed performance

The construct culture of self-directed performance has seven items that can be subdivided into two sub-constructs using exploratory factor analysis. This conclusion was reached after observing that the Cronbach's Alpha statistic for the 7 items was low. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in two latent factors: one comprising the items SDP1, SDP2, SDP3, SDP4 and SDP5 that seemed to address issues regarding employee innovation and collaboration, and another comprising items SDP6 and SDP7, which appeared to address employeemanager communication and feedback.


Table 6


The construct culture of self-directed performance, thus, is subdivided into two sub-constructs of innovation and collaboration and communication and feedback that are discussed in the following sections.

7.4 Analysis of the construct Culture of self-directed performance: Innovation and collaboration

The sub-construct Culture of self-directed performance that addresses innovation and collaboration has 5 items presented in Table 7. The levels of agreement on these items are rather low, as indicated by only 46.7 percent of respondents who agreed or strongly agreed that Inyatsi Construction creates a culture of collaboration. While only 40 percent of respondents indicated that Inyatsi Construction creates networking opportunities through which employees learn from each other.

The item with the lowest approval rate is the availability of social platforms that enable employees to share both challenges and best practices (26.7%). This fact means that there is a serious lack of social networking among employees to deal with challenges at work. Only 50 percent of the respondents believed that there was a culture that encouraged individual accountability.

The five items of the construct culture of self-directed performance, Innovation and collaboration have a high internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha=0.903); thus, the reliability of the measurement of the intended latent variable.

7.5 Analysis of the relationship between Training and development practices and organisational intentions to increase the skills base

In this section, the relationship between T&D practices and organisational intentions to increase the skills base is analysed. The research question being addressed reads: What is the relationship between Inyatsi Construction's T&D practices and organisational intentions to increase the skills base?

The results depicted in Table 8 show that there is a significant relationship between organisational intentions and T&D practices (β=0.862, t=8.740, p-value<0.001). This fact means that organisational intentions are driven by T&D practices. In fact, T&D practices account for 73.9 percent of the variation in organisational intentions (R-squared=0.739).

7.6 Analysis of the relationship between training and development practices and specific employee developmental needs

In this section, the relationship between T&D practices and specific employee developmental needs is analysed. The research question being addressed reads: What is the impact of Inyatsi Construction's T&D practices on specific employee developmental needs?

The results depicted in Table 9 show that there is a significant relationship between specific employee development needs and T&D practices (β=0.713 t=6.839, p-value<0.001). This fact means that specific employee development needs are driven by T&D practices. T&D practices account for 63.4 percent of the variation in specific employee development needs (R-squared=0.634).

7.6 The relationship between T&D practices and a culture of self-directed performance among Inyatsi Construction's employees

In this section, the relationship between T&D practices and a culture of self-directed performance among Inyatsi Construction's employees is analysed. The research question being addressed reads: Does Inyatsi Construction's T&D practices foster a culture of self-directed performance amongst its employees?

The results presented in Table 10 show that there is a significant relationship between the construct Culture of self-directed performance amongst its employees and both innovation and collaboration and T&D practices (β=0.735 t=5.548, p-value<0.001). This means that innovation and collaboration are driven by T&D practices. T&D practices account for 53.3 percent of the variation in innovation and collaboration (R-squared=0.533).

The results shown in Table 10 also indicate that there is no significant effect of T&D practices on a culture of self-directed performance amongst Inyatsi Construction's employees as far as communication and feedback are concerned (β=0.235 t=1.172, p-value=0.253).

7.8 Analysis of the relationship between training and development practices and employee attitudes and behaviours towards work

In this section, the relationship between T&D practices and employees' attitudes and behaviours towards work is analysed. The research question being addressed reads: What is the impact of Inyatsi Construction's T&D practices upon employees' attitudes and behaviours towards work?

The results depicted in Table 11 show that there is no significant relationship between employees' attitudes and behaviours towards work and T&D practices (β=0.189 t=1.308, p-value=0.203). This fact rules out T&D practices as drivers of employees' attitude and behaviours towards work. This result might be due to the fact that remuneration and benefits play a greater role in motivating employees than T&D practices.

7.9 Analysis of the relationship between training and development practices and employees' key performance areas

In this section, the relationship between T&D practices and employees' KPAs is analysed. The research question being addressed reads: Is there an alignment between Inyatsi Construction's T&D practices and employees' key performance areas?

The results presented in Table 12 show that there is a significant relationship between employees' KPAs and T&D practices (β=0.653 t=4.617, p-value<0.001). T&D practices explain 45.1 percent of employees' KPAs (R-square=0.451).



The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of T&D practices on employee performance at Inyatsi Construction. The reviewed literature advocates that only employee T&D leads to the maximum utilisation of all the economic resources of an organisation because, from a practical perspective, the skills that were utilised by the trained employees can increase the company's output and improve the quality of its products and services (Ganesh & Indradevi, 2015). From the findings of this study, it can be inferred that there is a significant relationship between T&D and both the employees and the organisation's performance. The study results show that there is a significant relationship between the variables as indicated below: (i) the Pearson correlation coefficient between T&D practices and employee performance is .57 (p< 0.01); (ii) there is a significant relationship between organisational intentions and T&D practices (β=0.862, t=8.740, p-value<0.001); (iii) there is a significant relationship between specific employee development needs and T&D practices (β=0.713 t=6.839, p-value<0.001); and (iv) there is significant relationship between employee KPAs and T&D practices (β=0.653 t=4.617, p-value<0.001). These findings imply that the null hypothesis of this study is not supported and must be rejected. The underlying hypothesis of this study is stated as follows: "There is a significant positive relationship between Inyatsi Construction's T&D practices and their employees' performance". This result is an indication of the contentment of the majority of Inyatsi Construction's employees with the company's current T&D practices. For efficiency, survival and competitive advantage, organisations rely upon their important assets (i.e., their workforce/staff's inimitable competencies and capabilities). Although, this study is limited to Inyatsi Construction Company and its findings can only be generalised to its branches throughout the Southern Africa region. Notwithstanding, the results will also serve as an important indicator to other companies of the same size and structure especially in the Kingdom of Eswatini.

It is critical, therefore, for organisations such as Inyatsi Construction to recruit skilled and capable employees in order to achieve better organisational performance because such employees will be more than competent to effectively complete their KPAs. Employees are the resources and assets of an organisation if they are skilled and trained and will perform better than those with limited competencies. Naong (2014), in his longitudinal study, reported an increased performance of those employees who receive appropriate T&D practices compared with those who do not; thus, the importance of the following recommendations:

Employees working at Inyatsi Construction in the Kingdom of Eswatini and its branches in RSA and Zambia are happy with the T&D practices of their company; however, most study respondents reported their intention to leave the company. Deliberate efforts and strategies must be developed to retain developed star performers and make it worth their while to do so, for example, an equity stake, etc.

Align organisational T&D initiatives/programmes with individual KPAs, as well as reward systems.

Although the unit of analysis was one organisation with three branches in two other countries besides the Kingdom of Eswatini, all of these are developing countries wherein the scope is still relatively small, a fact that compromises the study's generalisability. A much larger study could improve the quality of the results and conclusions and, hence, their generalisability.

Conviction of and investment in human capital is not only a visionary strategic move but also guarantees a sustainable competitive advantage for organisations.

Further study could focus on the impact of T&D practices on the demographic variables of study respondents.

Employee learning and development programmes should focus on the means of reducing uncertainty in the marketplace and achieving organisational goals (Metwally et al., 2019).



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