SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.31 número1Liturgical aspects of funeral services in Reformed Churches of African originThe reception of a Job poem in some contemporary poems índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google


Verbum et Ecclesia

versão On-line ISSN 2074-7705
versão impressa ISSN 1609-9982

Verbum Eccles. (Online) vol.31 no.1 Pretoria  2010 



Titus 3:3 as selfvilifikasie: 'n Retoriese opsie


Titus 3:3 as self-vilification: A rhetorical option



Aldred A. Genade

Fakulteit Teologie, Skool vir Bybelwetenskappe en Antieke Tale, Noordwes-Universiteit, Potchefstroom Kampus, Suid-Afrika





The rhetorical function of the vice list in Titus 3:3 remains to be accounted for. This article proposes that self-vilification, a novel rhetorical technique, be considered to investigate and propose a rhetorical function for Titus 3:3. The result is the identification and formulation of the overarching rhetorical objective of the verse in its totality. Titus 3:3 expresses a valuable corrective to Christian attitudes that could compromise the evangelistic or missiological mandate of the Church today.

Keywords: Retoriek; Titus; vilifikasie; retoriese analise; evangelisasie; sending



Full text available only in PDF format.




Bailey, M.L., 1994, 'A theology of Paul's Pastoral Epistles', in R.B. Zuck & D.L. Bock (eds.), A biblical theology of the NewTestament, pp. 333-367, Moody Press, Chicago.         [ Links ]

Bernard, J.H., 1980, The Pastoral Epistles: Timothy and Titus, Baker Publishing Group, Michigan.         [ Links ]

Botha, P.J., 1993, 'The verbal art of the Pauline letters: Rhetoric, performance and presence', in S.E. Porter & T.H. Olbricht (eds.), Rhetoric and the New Testament: Essays from the 1992 Heidelberg Conference, JSNT Sup, 90, pp. 409-428, JSOT Press, Sheffield        [ Links ]

Calvin, J., 1856, Commentaries on the epistles to Timothy, Titus and Philemon, trans. W. Pringle, T. Constable, London.         [ Links ]

Chrysostom, D., 1949, 'Dio Chrysostom', trans. J.W. Cohoon, The Loeb Classical Library, vol. 5, 2nd edn., Harvard University Press, Cambridge.         [ Links ]

Classen, C.J., 2002, Rhetorical criticism of the New Testament, Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden.         [ Links ]

Collins, R.F., 2000 'The theology of the epistle to Titus', Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses Tomus LXXVI, 56-72.         [ Links ]

Collins, R.F., 2002, 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus: A commentary, Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville.         [ Links ]

Dibelius, M. & Conzelmann, H., 1972, The Pastoral Epistles: A commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, Fortress Press, Philadelphia.         [ Links ]

Du Toit, A.B., 1989, 'Persuasion in Romans 1:1-17', Biblische Zeitschrift 33, 192-209.         [ Links ]

Du Toit, A.B., 1992, 'Alienation and re-identification as pragmatic strategies in Galatians', Neotestamentica 26, 279-295.         [ Links ]

Du Toit, A.B., 1994, 'Vilification as a pragmatic device in early Christian epistolography', Biblica 75, 403-412.         [ Links ]

Fee, D.G., 1988, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Hendrickson, Michigan.         [ Links ]

Forbes, C., 1986, 'Comparison, self-praise and irony: Paul's boasting and the conventions of Hellenistic rhetoric', New Testament Studies 32, 1-30.         [ Links ]

Hendriksen, W., 1957, 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus, Banner of Truth Trust, London.         [ Links ]

Hultgren, A.J., 1984, 1-2 Timothy, Titus, Minnesota, Minneapolis.         [ Links ]

Johnson, L.T., 1996, Letters to Paul's delegates: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Pennsylvania Trinity Press International, Valley Forge.         [ Links ]

Knight, G.W. III, 1992, The Pastoral Epistles: A commentary on the Greek text, WB Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Marshall, I.H., 2004, A critical and exegetical commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, T&T Clark International, London.         [ Links ]

Miller, J.D., 1997, 'The Pastoral Letters as composite documents', in R. Bauckham (ed.), Society for New Testament Studies: Monograph Series, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.         [ Links ]

Mounce, W.D., 2000, Pastoral Epistles, Thomas Nelson, Nashville.         [ Links ]

Quinn, J.D., 1990, The Letter to Titus: A new translation with notes and commentary and an introduction to Titus, 1 Timothy, and the pastoral epistles, Doubleday, New York.         [ Links ]

Simpson, E.K., 1954, The Pastoral Epistles: The Greek text with introduction and commentary, Tyndale Press, London.         [ Links ]

Tolmie, D.F., 2005, Persuading the Galatians: A text-centred rhetorical analysis of a Pauline letter, Möhr Siebeck, Tübingen.         [ Links ]

Towner, P.H., 1994, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, Intervarsity Press, Leicester.         [ Links ]



Aldred Genade
Fakulteit Teologie, Skool vir Bybelwetenskappe en Antieke Tale
Noordwes-Universiteit, Potchefstroom Kampus
Posbus 20004

Received: 10 Nov. 2009
Accepted: 26 June 2010
Published: 05 Oct. 2010

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons