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Yesterday and Today

On-line version ISSN 2309-9003
Print version ISSN 2223-0386

Y&T  n.21 Vanderbijlpark Jul. 2019




SASHT News and YT guidelines




The 33rd South African Society for History Teaching (SASHT) and the 3rd African Association for History Education (AHE-Afrika) 2019 joint conference will be held on Thursday 26th and Friday 27th September 2019 at the Department of Humanities Education, Groenkloof Campus, University of Pretoria

The African Association for History Education (AHE-Afrika) and the South African Society for History Teaching (SASHT), in partnership with the Department of Humanities Education in the Faculty of Education at the University of Pretoria, are pleased to announce a two-day international conference titled 'HISTORY EDUCATION AND THE STATE'. The occurrence will be the second of two consecutive and closely intertwined events: it will follow a one-day international research seminar jointly organised by AHE-Afrika and the International Research Association for History and Social Sciences Education (IRAHSSE), which will take place at the University of Pretoria on 25 September 2019,



It is no secret that the state plays a dominant role in what is taught to a country's future citizens on account of the power of education to shape views and identities. This is particularly true for History; a school subject whose content and pedagogy many governments around the world wish to define and control. Historically, curriculum development and implementation, and textbooks as the programmatic curriculum, have been preferred areas of state involvement in History Education.

The content, aims, pedagogies and assessments characterising a History curriculum are often the choice of those in power and cannot be understood in isolation from the political context. Selecting curricular content to include or exclude, and to foreground or background, is a filtering process that largely amounts to a political act often driven by vested interests and ideologies. It involves, among other things, questions of historical significance and objectivity, and contestations revolving around which historical narrative will serve the purpose put forward by the state.

Extant research has pointed to cases where state intervention in History Education has involved the crafting and uncritical transmission of dogmatic grand-narratives that celebrate and legitimise those in power by selectively and, at times, maliciously drawing on the past at the expense of internal or external 'enemies', thereby fuelling or deepening intra- or inter-state tensions. It has however also pointed to cases, notably in post-conflict societies, where School History has been rewritten to reckon with a violent past and thus signal a break with a curriculum that may have played a role in perpetuating conflict, with a view to ultimately promoting reconciliation and social cohesion. Regardless of intentions, the act of selecting 'significant' events raises issues of subjectivity: addressing previously forgotten or silenced histories may lead to newly defined 'insignificant' histories to becoming new silent voices.

In some contexts, notably in South Africa, content knowledge reform has been accompanied by a move away from a type of History assessment heavily relying on the memorisation of facts and dates and that is tantamount to indoctrination, to practices that aim to favour historical thinking skills. Such moves away from History Education as a 'memory- discipline' towards a more progressive conceptualisation as 'disciplinary-discipline' have however Often remained elusive, partly as the result of an evident state preoccupation with perpetuating its power and influence on young citizens' minds.

We call for a closer examination of the role and implications of states' political agenda and ideologies in the development and implementation of History curricula in Africa and in comparison with countries around the world. The conference aims to cover a variety of topics exploring the links between History Education and the state, and their multifarious manifestations in curricula, textbooks, pedagogy and classroom practices, teacher education at primary, secondary and tertiary level, assessment as well as history education in informal settings. We welcome historical, theoretical and empirical studies, and individual cases and comparative analyses that draw upon different contexts, theories and methods to shed new light on questions that relate to the general conference theme.

NB. Although the focus of the conference will be on HISTORY EDUCATION AND THE STATE, all papers related to History Education will be welcomed.



VENUE: Aldoel Building, Department of Humanities Education, Faculty of Education, Groenkloof Campus, Leyds Street, Pretoria, South Africa

THEME: History Education and the State

DATE: Thursday 26 and Friday 27 September 2019 - 9:00-17:00 on each day

CONFERENCE COCKTAIL DINNER: Thursday 26 September 2019

CLOSING SUBMISSION DATE: 1 August 2019. We do, however, encourage applicants to submit their abstracts as soon as possible. Applications will be reviewed on a rolling basis and notifications of their acceptance or rejection will be sent within 3 working days.



The following fees apply:

South African and International Academics - R1500.00

Teachers - R1200.00

Postgraduate students (proof needs to be provided) - R1200.00 . All other attendees - R1500.00

The fees will cover lunch on Thursday and Friday, morning and afternoon tea, and one dinner cocktail on Thursday evening. All travel expenses, accommodation and additional meals are to be covered by the attendees. For an additional fee of 50 US$/R750, participants will be able to also register for the one-day pre-conference research seminar 'Towards decolonising teaching and research: Perspectives and experiences in history and social sciences education' that will take place at the same venue on 25 September 2019 (see the accompanying AHE-AFRIKA/IRAHSSE CFPs).

Please note: Even if accepted, no abstract will be included in the final programme if full payment of the registration fees has not been received by 23 August 2019.



ABSA Bank, Centurion Branch, Branch Code 630445, Account Name, SASHT, Account Number 678209406, Swift Code ABSAZAJJ. Reference: Your surname 2019.

Proof of payment must be emailed to: and



Prospective presenters should submit abstracts of no more than 250 words, with 3 keywords, together with a brief biography of no more than 100 words. Applications should be sent as a single Word document (file name: last name, first name) with the subject line 'History Education Conference 2019' to denisebentrovato@up.acza and u13066120(3) Please, use MS-Word, Arial 12pt font, 15 spacing, and indicate clearly the type of presentation proposed:

1. Individual paper - 20 minutes, plus 10-minute question and discussion time

2. Panel -45-60 minutes

3. Workshop - 45-60 minutes

4. Poster - Posters will be displayed in a public area and time programmed for a 5-10 minute discussion during a gallery walk-about



We strongly encourage participants to prepare their papers with a view to possible publication in the SASHT accredited journal, Yesterday & Today (See examples of Yesterday & Today articles at



For any enquiries, please contact Dr Denise Bentrovato denise.bentrovato(5)

Prof Johan Wassermann and Dr Denise Bentrovato (conference organisers)

Occasionally the SASHT Executive requests that the SASHT constitution is displayed in an Yesterday&Today edition to inform and/or update their members. Members are invited to request a review of any section of the SASHT constitution at an SASHT General Meeting. Prior consent of a section review must be received in written form by the Secretariat of the SASHT or the Chairperson/vice Chairperson of the SASHT (see communication details in the SASHT AGM-minute)

SASHT Constitution

The South African Society for History Teaching (SASHT)

(An Association of History Educators, Organisations, Publishers and People interested in History Teaching as well as the educational dissemination of historical research and




1.1 There shall be constituted a body known as the SOUTH AFRICAN SOCIETY FOR HISTORY TEACHING (SASHT). The provisions herein contained shall be known as the Constitution of the Society, which provisions may be altered by a majority of those members present at a general meeting of members, considering that:

1.1.1 the precise terms of any proposed alteration shall be set out in a notice prior to convening the meeting and/or Circulated to members via electronic medium at least a month before the meeting;

1.1.22 the purpose and objects of the Society shall not be altered without the consent of 66% of the members (via electronic medium and formally communicated/confirmed at the AGM that follows the approved/disapproved alteration.



The objectives of the Society (since date of founding in 1986) shall be to assist its members in every possible way and in particular:

2.1 To improve the contact between educators of History training at tertiary level and teachers in the broad educational field.

2.2 To renew a training in the didactics of History education.

2.3 To utilise the expertise of educators teaching History to assist with the training of future History teachers.

2.4 To continuously debate the content of basic and advanced educational programmes in the training of History educators with the intention to continue to improve quality.

2.5 To make history educators and student teachers aware of the relationship between History as an academic discipline and the didactics and teaching of History at school level in order to keep abreast with educational development and academic debates.

2.6. To encourage educators of History to strive towards achieving and sustaining high academic standards in the teaching methodology and in the general knowledge of History as a discipline.

2.7 To make educators of History and student teachers in History aware of the relevance or "value" of History for communities and the nation at large.

2.8 To explore, if the SASHT grows in membership, the idea of identifying and organising committees that can explore and develop certain fields in History to benefit all the educators of History in South Africa.



3.1 Membership shall consist of three types:

3.1.1 Individual membership (History educators or other academically-focused members from institutions) who are fully paid up members of the Society (Annual fees will be determined by the Executive each year and communicated timeously to members and potential members). The individual members representing an educational, institution will be eligible to vote or serve on the SASHT Executive and any committees/portfolios, and will receive electronic correspondence as well as a copy (twice annually) of the peer reviewed and DHET-indexed reviewed SASHT- connected Journal, Yesterday&Today.

3.1.2 Group membership (schools, academic institutions, private organisations & publishers): Will pay an annual membership fee determined by the Executive Committee on a yearly basis which will include a membership provision of more than one individual. These members will be eligible to vote but not all be eligible to serve on the committees. Electronic correspondence will be received as well as a copy (twice annually) of the SASHT-connected Yesterday&Today Journal obtained.

3.1.3 Individual membership outside the borders of South Africa: Will pay the annual fee as determined by the Executive Committee in Rand or in another currency as indicated on the SASHT membership form.

The individual members outside the borders of South Africa will be eligible to vote but not serve on the Executive Committee (these members could serve on other committees as occasionally identified, as well as on the Yesterday&Today editorial board) and will receive electronic correspondence as well as a copy (twice annually) of the SASHT-connected Journal, Yesterday&Today.

3.2 The following persons are eligible as members of the Society:

3.2.1 any History educator/organisation/publisher who subscribes to the objectives of the Society; and

3.2.2 is approved by the Executive Committee as a member.

3.3 Any member may resign by notice to the chairperson, the vice chairperson or the secretariat/treasurer.

3.4 Membership will be held confidential, and it is up to individual members to disclose his or her membership to the general public.



4.1 The interests of the Society shall be managed by at least a ten-member Executive Committee consisting of a chairperson, a vice chairperson (when required), a secretariat and a treasurer (this position can also be combined into a secretary-treasurer position) and six to seven additional members as portfolio members and/or regional representatives. These members in the leading position of the SASHT shall hold the respective positions for a maximum of three years, after which they may be re-elected at an annual general meeting (usually to be held in September-October). Two additional members (the guest hosting a conference during the following year and a History educator abroad) may be nominated.

The temporary Executive member hosting the next conference may be nominated fully on the Executive as well, but if not he/she only has a temporary executive position to smooth the conference organization process with efficient communication.

4.2 An election of new Executive Committee members for the SASHT Executive during every third Annual General SASHT meeting should be conducted by one of the SASHT members or an executive member who has been nominated to undertake the task (and not the current chairperson or vice chairperson).

4.3 A process of nomination and election becomes necessary if Executive Committee members have served a three-year term. Both new nominees and retiring committee members are eligible for re-nominating in a re-election. Electing the new SASHT Executive of 10 members through Internet will be conducted at least two weeks prior to an annual SASHT conference. The secretariat manages the term of office of the SASHT Executive, sends out notifications to retiring/re-election status members and invites new nominations, to be done formally and on a standard SASHT nomination form.

4.4 Only fully paid-up members of the SASHT (and preferably only one member per institution in the Society having served in the Society for at least one year) are eligible for election as Executive Committee members. A nominator of a nominee and the seconder (inclusive of the nominee) must all be paid-up members of the SASHT.

The newly elected SASHT Executive from the nominations received will be formally revealed during an annual AGM meeting of the SASHT.

From the ten nominees, fully elected by secret vote and accepted, the positions of chairperson and vice chairperson should be voted for by the newly elected SASHT Executive Committee. This voting process will normally be done after the AGM meeting in the yearof election.

4.5 The SASHT Executive Committee may co-opt a member to the Committee in the event of a vacancy occurring for the remaining period of the term of office of the person who vacated the position OR the opening of a vacancy due to any other reason and with the consent of the rest of the SASHT Executive.

4.6 The Executive Committee of the Society may appoint sub-committees as it deems fit.

4.7 Each sub-committee or portfolio of the Executive Committee shall be chaired by a committee member and may consist of so many members as the committee may decide from time to time.

4.8 A sub-committee may co-opt any SASHT member to such sub-committee or portfolio.



5.1 Executive Committee Meetings

5.1.1 Committee meetings shall be convened by the secretariat/secretary-treasurer on the instructions of the chairperson or vice-chairperson or when four committee members jointly and in writing apply for such a meeting to be convened. Three committee members shall form a quorum. Most of the correspondence will be done via e-mail.

5.1.2 SASHT Executive Committee meetings will take place BEFORE an annual SASHT conference and AFTER the conference.

5.1.3 Committee decisions shall take place by voting. In the event of the voting being equal, the chairperson shall have a casting vote.

5.1.4 Should a committee member absent himself from two successive committee meetings without valid reason and/or not replying twice on e-mail requests in decision making, he/she shall forfeit his/her committee membership.

5.2 General Meetings

5.2.1 The Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Society shall take place during the annual SASHT Conference.

5.2.2 A special general meeting may be convened by the Executive Committee upon the receipt of a signed, written request of at least ten registered members of the Society which request must be accompanied by a full motivation for requesting such a meeting.

5.3 The Executive Committee may call a general meeting as it deems fit.

5.4 The following procedures shall apply to all general meetings:

5.4.1 A minimum of ten members will form a quorum. In the absence of such a quorum, the members present may adjourn the meeting for a period of seven days where the members present at the adjourned date will automatically constitute a quorum.

5.4.2 Decisions shall be taken by a majority vote.

5.5 Finances

5.5.1 All the income of the Society shall be deposited in an account at a bank and/or other approved financial institution. One to two members, consisting of either the chairperson and/or the vice-chairperson and/or the secretary-treasurer if so arranged, shall be empowered to withdraw and deposit funds for the use of/on behalf of the Society.

5.5.2 Any amount that must be withdrawn, and exceeds the amount of R3 000 should beforehand be properly communicated among the two to three empowered Executive members (namely the chairperson, the vice chairperson and, if a position of treasurer exists, the treasurer). All these aforesaid empowered executive members should be able to exercise their signing right (to withdraw and deposit funds) on behalf of the SASHT in the absence of a/the treasurer, but with the consent and approval of the core SASHT Executive.

5.5.3 Proper accounts shall be kept of all finances of the Society as set out in the regulations published in terms of the Fundraising Act, 1978.

5.5.4 A financial report shall be produced by the Executive or Secretary-treasurer (the latter if appointed as such) at the annual general meeting or upon request from the SASHT Executive Committee. Otherwise a full general account at least should be provided in the Chairperson's report.

5.5.5 Financial contributions will be collected from all persons and/or organisations, worldwide, which support the objectives of the Society.

5.5.6 Guest SASHT conference organiser(s)/Society member involved, shall be accountable for transferring the remaining income obtained from organising an annual conference into the SASHT bank account, as part of the effort to strengthen the SASHT's financial capacity. Any contributions, towards the covering of conference expenses by the Society are on a strictly voluntary basis.



Each individual subscribed member (and one member of a subscribed institution) has one vote at any meeting.



Any amendment to this Constitution shall only be effected by a two-thirds majority decision at a general meeting or via proper E-mail communication prior to a general meeting; or a special general meeting, and further provided that seven days' prior notice was given of the proposed amendment.

Notice is to be given in the same manner as a notice for a general meeting.



8.1 The Society may dissolve, or merge, with any other association with a similar purpose and objectives in each case only:

8.1.1 On a resolution passed by the majority of members present at a duly constituted general or special general meeting of members; or

8.1.2 On an application to a court of law by any member on the ground that the Society has become dormant or is unable to fulfil its purpose and objectives,

8.1.3 On a merger, the assets of the Society shall accrue to the Society/Association with which the merger is affected.

8.1.4 On dissolution, the assets of the Society shall be realised by a liquidator appointed by the general meeting or the court, as the case may be, and the proceeds shall be distributed equally amongst such Societies/Associations with similar objectives as may be nominated by the last Executive Committee of the Society.



9.1 Every Executive member/ordinary member of the Society shall be entitled at all reasonable times to inspect all books of account and other documents of the Society which the custodian thereof shall accordingly be obliged to produce.



The Yesterday & Today (Y&T) Journal for History Teaching in South Africa and abroad



Editorial policy

1. Y&T is a scholarly, peer-reviewed journal (accredited since the beginning of 2012).

2. The Y&T journal is a journal for research in especially the fields of History teaching and History discipline research to improve not only the teaching, but also the knowledge dissemination of History, History of Education and History in Education. The Journal is currently editorially managed by the University of Pretoria and published under the auspices of the South African Society for History Teaching (SASHT).

3. Contributions may be either in the humanities (historically based theoretical discourses), or from education (best practice workshops, or focused content research with a fundamental theoretical basis reflecting History or other histories). Articles, in which interdisciplinary collaborations between the humanities and education are explored, are also welcome.

4. Regional content mostly considers quantitative and qualitative research in Southern Africa, but international contributions, that apply to History teaching and research in general, are equally welcome.

5. Authors may submit individual contributions or contributions created in teams.

6. All manuscripts are subjected to a double-blinded review process.

7. The language of the journal is English. However, abstracts may be in any of the 11 official languages of South Africa.

8. Contributions must be accompanied by an abstract of not more than 250 words.

9. The titles of articles should preferably not exceed 20 words.

10. The names of authors and their full institutional affiliations/addresses must accompany all contributions. Authors also have to enclose their telephone and E-mail and postal addresses and orchid numbers.

11. The Harvard or the Footnote methods of reference may be used (see the last pages of the journal for the reference guidelines for more detail on the Harvard and Footnote reference methods). The authors' choice of which reference method will be respected by the editorial management. References must be clear, lucid and comprehensible for a general academic audience of readers. Once an author has made a choice of reference method, the Y&T guidelines for either the Harvard reference method or the Footnote reference method must be scrupulously followed. The guidelines for referencing according to the Harvard method are provided on the last pages of the journal. The most recent Yesterday&Today journal articles could also serve as guideline.

12. Editorial material with images (illustrations, photographs, tables and graphs) is permissible. The images should, however, be of a high-density quality (high resolution, minimum of 200dpi). The source references should also be included. Large files should be posted in separate E-mail attachments, and appropriately numbered in sequence.

13. Articles should be submitted to the editor (Professor Johan Wassermann) electronically at: Notification of the receipt of the documents will be done within 72 hours.

14. The text format must be in 12pt font, Times New Roman and in 1.5 spacing. The text should be in Microsoft Word format.

15. The length of articles should preferably not exceed 8 000 words.

16. Articles which have been published previously, or which are under consideration for publication elsewhere, may not be submitted to the Yesterday&Today journal. Copies of the Journal is also electronically available on the SASHT website at and on the Scielo platform at

17. For scientific research articles, page fees of R220.00 per page (for 10 pages R2 200) will be charged from the South African author's university. However, in the end it remains the responsibility of the author to ensure that these fees are paid.

18. The journal utilizes the Portico digital preservation system in order to create permanent archives of the journal for purpose of preservation and restoration.

19. Yesterday&Today is an Open Access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of Open Access.

20. The journal has a registered deposit policy with SHERPA RoMEO. This policy indicates to institutions whether they are allowed to upload a duplicate copy of an article by an author affiliated with the home institution, into their institutional repository (Green Open Access). The following link to SHERPA RoMEO can be followed:

21. Copyright and License terms remains with the authors/s of the article/s. All articles published Yesterday&Today can be re-used under the following CC licence: CC BY-SA Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



Yesterday & Today Template guidelines for writing an article



1. Font type: Times New Roman.

2. Font size in body text: 12pt.

3. Author's details: ONLY provide the following: Title, Campus & University full address, e-mail address, orchid number.

Title: 10pt, regular font; Campus & University: 10pt, italics; and E-mail address: 10pt, regular font. (Consult previous articles published in the Y&T journal as an example or as a practical guideline).

Example: Pieter van Rensburg, Vaal Triangle Campus, North-West University,

4. Abstract: The abstract should be placed on the first page (where the title heading and author's particulars appear). The prescribed length is between a half and three quarters of a page.

The abstract body: Regular font, 10pt.

The heading of the Abstract: Bold, italics, 12pt.

5. Keywords: The keywords should be placed on the first page below the abstract.

The word 'Keywords':10pt, bold, underline.

Each keyword must start with a capital letter and end with a semicolon (;). Example: Meters; People; etc. (A minimum of six key words is required).

6. Heading of article: 14pt, bold.

7. Main headings in article: 'Introduction' - 12pt, bold.

8. Sub-headings in article: 'History research' - 12pt, bold, italics.

9. Third level sub-headings: 'History research': - 11pt, bold, underline.

10. Footnotes: 8pt, regular font; BUT note that the footnote numbers in the article text should be 12pt.

The initials in a person's name (in footnote text) should be without any full stops. Example: LC du Plessis and NOT L.C. du Plessis.

11. Body text: Names without punctuation in the text. Example: "HL le Roux said" and NOT "H.L. le Roux said".

12. Page numbering: Page numbering in the footnote reference text should be indicated as follows:

Example: p.space23 - p. 23. / pp. 23-29.

13. Any lists in the body text should be 11pt, and in bullet format.

14. Quotes from sources in the body text must be used sparingly. If used, it must be indented and in italics (10pt). Quotes less than one line in a paragraph can be incorporated as part of a paragraph, but within inverted commas; and NOT in italics. Example: An owner close to the town stated that: "the pollution history of the river is a muddy business".

15. Quotes (as part of the body text) must be in double inverted commas: "...and she" and NOT '...and she'.

16. Images: Illustrations, pictures, photographs and figures: Submit all pictures for an article in jpeg, tiff or pdf format in a separate folder, and indicate where the pictures should be placed in the manuscript's body text. All visuals are referred to as Images.

Example: Image 1: 'Image title' (regular font, 10pt) in the body text.

Sources of all images should also be included after the 'Image title'.

Example: Source: 'The source' (regular font, 9 pt). Remember to save and name pictures in the separate folder accordingly.

Important note: All the images should be of good quality (a minimum resolution of 200dpi is required; if the image is not scanned).

17. Punctuation marks should be placed in front of the footnote numbers in the text. Example: the end.1 NOT .. .the end1.

18. Single and left spacing between the sentences in the footnote.

19. Dates: All dates in footnotes should be written out in full. Example: 23 December 2010; NOT 23/12/2010 [For additional guidelines see the Yesterday & Today Reference guidelines].

20. Language setting in Microsoft Word as English (South Africa); do this before starting with the word processing of the article. Go to

'Review', 'Set Language' and select 'English (South Africa)'.

The footnote or Harvard reference methods - some guidelines

Both the footnote reference method and the Harvard reference method are accepted for articles in Yesterday & Today. See some guidelines below:

The footnote reference method

Footnote references should be placed at the bottom of each page. Footnotes should be numbered sequentially throughout the article and starting with 1. Archival sources/published works/authors referred to in the text should be cited in full in the first footnote of each new reference. Thereafter it can be reduced to a shorter footnote reference. Do not refer to the exact same source and page numbers in footnotes that follow each other.

The use of the Latin word "Ibid" is not allowed. Rather refer to the actual reference again (or in its shortened version) on the rest of a page(s) in the footnote section.

The titles of books, articles, chapters, theses, dissertations and papers/ manuscripts should NOT be capitalised at random. Only the names of people and places (and in some instances specific historic events) are capitalised. For example:

P Erasmus, "The 'lost' South African tribe - rebirth of the Koranna in the Free State", New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77;


P Erasmus, "The 'Lost' South African Tribe - Rebirth Of The Koranna In The Free State", New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77.

PLEASE NOTE: Referencing journal titles imply that every word of the journal must start with a capital letter, example: Yesterday&Today Journal.

Examples of an article in a journal

R Siebörger, Incorporating human rights into the teaching of History: Teaching materials, Yesterday&Today, 2, October 2008, pp. 1-14.

S Marks, "Khoisan resistance to the Dutch in the seventeenth and eighteen centuries", Journal of African History, 3(1), 1972, p. 76.

Example of a shortened version of an article in a journal


P Erasmus, "The 'lost' South African tribe - rebirth of the Koranna in the Free State", New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77.


P Erasmus, "The 'lost' South African tribe...", New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77. [Please note: ONLY the title of the article is shortened and not the finding place.l

Examples of a reference from a book

WF Lye & C Murray, Transformations on the Highveld: The Tswana and the Southern Sotho (Cape Town, David Phillip, 1980), pp. 7, 10.

JJ Buys, Die oorsprong en migrasiebewegings van die Koranna en hulle rol in die Trans-gariep tot 1870 (Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein, 1989), pp. 33-34.

[Please note: The reference variety to page numbers used.]

Example of a shortened version of a reference from a book From:

JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement: Calvinism, the Congregational Ministry, and reform in New England between the Great Awakenings (Washington, Christian University Press, 1981), p. 23.


JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement..., p. 23.

Example of a reference from a chapter in a book

S Brown, "Diplomacy by other means: SWAPO's liberation war", C Leys, JS Saul, Namibia's liberation struggle: The two-edged sword (London, Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 19-39.

Shortened version:

S Brown, "Diplomacy by other means...", C Leys, JS Saul, Namibia's liberation struggle..., pp. 19-39.

Example of a reference from an unpublished dissertation/thesis

MJ Dhlamini, "The relationship between the African National Congress and the Pan Afri-canist Congress, 1959-1990" (Ph.D, NWU, 2006), pp. 4, 8, 11.

Examples of a reference from a newspaper

P Coetzee, "Voëlvlugblik ATKV 75 op ons blink geskiedenis", Die Transvaler, 6 Januarie

2006, p. 8.


Zululand Times, 19 July 1923.

Archival references:


Provide at least key details such as: Name of interviewee and profession; the interviewer and profession and date of interview

Example of interview reference

K Rasool (Personal Collection), interview, K Kotzé (CEO, Goldfields, Johannesburg Head Office)/E Schutte (Researcher, NWU, School of Basic Science), 12

March 2006.

Example of shortened interview reference (after it has been used once in article) K Rasool (Personal Collection), interview, K. Kotzé/E Schutte , 12 March 2006.

Example of an Electronic Mail - document or letter

E-mail: W Pepler (Bigenafrica, Pretoria/E van Eeden (Researcher), 22 October 2006.

National archives (or any other archive)

National Archive (NA), Pretoria, Department of Education (DoE), Vol.10, Reference 8/1/3/452: Letter, K Lewis (Director General) / P Dlamini (Teacher, Springs College), 12 June 1960.

[Please note: After the first reference to the National Archives or Source Group for example, it can be abbreviated to e.g. NA or DE.]

A source accessed on the Internet

A Dissel, "Tracking transformation in South African prisons", Track Two, 11(2), April 2002 (available at, as accessed on 14 Jan. 2003), pp. 1-3.

A source from conference proceedings First reference to the source:

D Dollar, "Asian century or multi-polar century?" (Paper, Global Development Network Annual Conference, Beijing, January 2007), p. 7.

B Sautmann, "The forest for the trees: Trade investment and the China-in-Africa discourse" (Paper, Public Seminar: China in Africa: Race, relations and reflections, Centre for Sociological Research, University of Johannesburg, 28 July

2007), p. 7.

Shortened version:

D Dollar, "Asian century..." (Paper, GDN Conference, 2007), p. 7.

B Sautmann, "The forest for the trees: ..." (Paper, Public Seminar: China in Africa: University of Johannesburg [or UJ]), p. 7.



The appropriate positioning of the image should be indicated in the text. Original copies should be clearly identified on the back. High quality scanned versions are always welcome.

Authors, PLEASE obtain copyright and reproduction rights on photographs and other illustrations.

Copyright on all material in Yesterday&Today rests within the Editorial Advisory Committee of Yesterday&Today.

The Harvard reference method References in the text

References are cited in the text by the author'(s) surname(s) and the year of publication in brackets, separated by a comma: e.g. (Weedon, 1977:13).

If several articles by the same author and from the same year are cited, the letters a, b, c, etc. should be added after the year of publication: e.g. (Fardon, 2007a:23).

Page references in the text should follow a colon after the date: e.g. (Bazalgette, 1992:209-214).

In works by three or more authors the surnames of all authors should be given in the first reference to such a work. In subsequent references to this work, only the name of the first author is given, followed by the abbreviation et al.: e.g. (Ottaro et al., 2005:34).

If reference is made to an anonymous item in a newspaper, the name of the newspaper is given in brackets: e.g. (The Citizen, 2010).

For personal communications (oral or written) identify the person and indicate in brackets that it is a personal communication: e.g. (B Brown, pers. comm.).

Ensure that dates, spelling and titles used in the text are accurate and consistent with those listed in the references.

List all references chronologically and then alphabetically: e.g. (Scott 2003; Muller 2006; Meyer 2007).

List of references

Only sources cited in the text are listed, in alphabetical order, under References.

Bibliographic information should be in the language of the source document, not in the language of the article.

References should be presented as indicated in the following examples. See the required punctuation.

Journal articles

Surname(s) and initials of author(s), year of publication, title of article, unabbreviated title of journal, volume, issue number in brackets and page numbers: e.g. Shepherd, R 1992. Elementary media education. The perfect curriculum. English Quarterly, 25(2):35-38.


Surname(s) and initials of author(s) or editor(s), year of publication, title of book, volume, edition, place of publication and publisher: e.g. Mouton, J 2001. Understanding social research. Pretoria: JL van Schaik.

Chapters in books

Surname(s) and initials of author(s,) year of publication, title of chapter, editor(s), title of book, place of publication and publisher: e.g. Masterman, L 1992. The case of television studies. In: M Alvarado & O Boyd-Barrett (eds.). Media education: an introduction. London: British Film Institute.

Unpublished theses or dissertations

Fardon, JVV 2007. Gender in history teaching resources in South African public school. Unpublished DEd thesis. Pretoria: Unisa.

Anonymous newspaper references

Daily Mail 2006. World Teachers' Day, 24 April.

Electronic references

Published under author's name:

Marshall, J 2003. Why Johnny can't teach. Reason, December. Available at Accessed on 10 August 2010.

Website references: No author:

These references are not archival, and subject to change in any way and at any time If it is essential to present them, they should be included in a numbered endnote and not in the reference list.

Personal communications

Normally personal communications should always be recorded and retrievable. It should be cited as follows:

Personal interview, K Kombuis (Journalist-singer)/S van der Merwe (Researcher), 2 October 2010.

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