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SAIEE Africa Research Journal

On-line version ISSN 1991-1696
Print version ISSN 0038-2221


AJIBARE, Adedotun T. et al. Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Assessment, Analysis, Computation, and Minimization Technique in 5G Networks: A Perspective on QoS Trade-Offs. SAIEE ARJ [online]. 2023, vol.114, n.4, pp.114-127. ISSN 1991-1696.

In this study, the specific absorption rate (SAR) and exposure index (EI) of access points (APs) and user equipment (UEs) in fourth-generation (4G) and fifth-generation (5G) wireless technologies are examined with regard to the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) radiation and the implications of their reduction. We characterize the EI using a classical mathematical method while considering the power density, the SAR, the electric field strength, and the tissue's density and conductivity. As such, a novel exposure-index open-loop power control algorithm is proposed to evaluate the realistic RF-EMF radiation exposure on human users from both the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) communication devices. To solve an EI minimization problem using the open-loop power control algorithm, we formulate it in the form of a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. As the energy capacity (i.e., power density) in wireless networks determines the radiation exposure (SAR and EI), it minimizes the EI by controlling and managing the transmitted and received powers under the restrictions of Quality of Service (QoS), interference, and power, while ensuring the users' QoS requirements are met. Our proposed scheme is numerically compared to other heuristic algorithms and exposure limits established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and other similar organizations. Lastly, we compare the emissions from 4G and 5G networks to the emissions from UL and DL transmissions. Our simulation findings indicate that our proposed technique is a good alternative. Our assessment, in terms of numerical results and evaluation, also verifies that the exposures are bearable, fall within the recommended limits, and are minimized without impairing the users' QoS.

Keywords : RF radiation; 5G networks; power control; MINLP; specific absorption rate; exposure index.

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